The background history of biocompatible materials

Tissue Engineering. Science , , — , DOI: A review with 72 refs. The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biol. The foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide solns. Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference. On the Mechanisms of Biocompatibility. Biomaterials , 29 20 , — , DOI: Elsevier Ltd. A review. The manner in which a mutually acceptable coexistence of biomaterials and tissues is developed and sustained has been the focus of attention in biomaterials science for many years, and forms the foundation of the subject of biocompatibility.

There are many ways in which materials and tissues can be brought into contact such that this co-existence may be compromised, and the search for biomaterials that are able to provide for the best performance in devices has been based upon the understanding of all the interactions within biocompatibility phenomena. Our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility has been restricted while the focus of attention has been long-term implantable devices. In this paper, over 50 years of experience with such devices is analyzed and it is shown that, in the vast majority of circumstances, the sole requirement for biocompatibility in a medical device intended for long-term contact with the tissues of the human body is that the material shall do no harm to those tissues, achieved through chem.

Rarely has an attempt to introduce biol. This essay then turns its attention to the use of biomaterials in tissue engineering, sophisticated cell, drug and gene delivery systems and applications in biotechnol. It is believed that once the need for this change is recognized, so our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility will markedly improve.

Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. Journal of cardiovascular translational research , 4 5 , ISSN:. Gourlay, Stuart J. An in vivo method is described for screening polymeric materials for biocompatibility. The test is based on grading acute and subacute tissue reactions at 7 and 28 days, resp.

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The method is reproducible and reliable. It is designed to provide uniform test criteria for biocompatibility assessment in the early phases of the development of surgical implant materials. In Definitions in biomaterials: proceedings of a consensus conference of the European Society for Biomaterials, Chester, England, March 3—5, ; Elsevier , Third-Generation Biomedical Materials.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science. Whereas second-generation biomaterials were designed to be either resorbable or bioactive, the next generation of biomaterials is combining these two properties, with the aim of developing materials that, once implanted, will help the body heal itself. Foreign Body Reaction to Biomaterials. Elsevier B. The foreign body reaction composed of macrophages and foreign body giant cells is the end-stage response of the inflammatory and wound healing responses following implantation of a medical device, prosthesis, or biomaterial.

A brief, focused overview of events leading to the foreign body reaction is presented. The major focus of this review is on factors that modulate the interaction of macrophages and foreign body giant cells on synthetic surfaces where the chem. An understanding of the foreign body reaction is important as the foreign body reaction may impact the biocompatibility safety of the medical device, prosthesis, or implanted biomaterial and may significantly impact short- and long-term tissue responses with tissue-engineered constructs contg.

Our perspective has been on the inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials, devices, and tissue-engineered constructs. The incorporation of biol. An in depth understanding of how the immune system interacts with these cells and how biomaterials or tissue-engineered constructs influence these interactions may prove pivotal to the safety, biocompatibility, and function of the device or system under consideration. Nyska, Abraham; Schiffenbauer, Yael S.

In the case of biomaterials and medical devices, the toxicol. Proper assessment of biocompatibility of biomaterials is of utmost importance, since it helps to det. Biomaterial-related toxicity can be attributed to several factors, including for example leachable compds. Evaluation of biocompatibility and biofunctionality involves assessment of cytotoxicity, allergic responses, irritation, inflammation and systemic and chronic toxicity.

In many of these assessments, the toxicol. In this article, we review the special needs for proper toxicol. We review common adverse effects expected with biomaterials and describe their pathol. We also introduce a novel compact MR imaging technol. Since the MR imaging technique is non-invasive, the effects of the implantable device can be monitored longitudinally in the same animal without perturbation of the pathol.

Diabetes Sci. Journal of diabetes science and technology , 2 6 , ISSN:. In recent years, a variety of devices drug-eluting stents, artificial organs, biosensors, catheters, scaffolds for tissue engineering, heart valves, etc.

However, when such devices are implanted into the body, the body can react to these in a number of different ways. These reactions can result in an unexpected risk for patients. Therefore, it is important to assess and optimize the biocompatibility of implantable devices. To date, numerous strategies have been investigated to overcome body reactions induced by the implantation of devices. This review focuses on the foreign body response and the approaches that have been taken to overcome this. The biological response following device implantation and the methods for biocompatibility evaluation are summarized.

Then the risks of implantable devices and the challenges to overcome these problems are introduced. Specifically, the challenges used to overcome the functional loss of glucose sensors, restenosis after stent implantation, and calcification induced by implantable devices are discussed. Biodegradable Polymers for Biomedical Uses. A review with refs. Biodegradability of polymers, biomedical surgical and drug delivery applications , natural and synthetic polymers are discussed.

Biomacromolecules , 4 6 , — , DOI: American Chemical Society. This review presents the various methods of the synthesis of polyesters and tailoring the properties by proper control of mol. The effect of structure on properties and degrdn. The applications of these polymers in the biomedical field are described in detail.

Biodegradable Polymers as Biomaterials. During the past 2 decades significant advances were made in the development of biodegradable polymeric materials for biomedical applications. Each of these applications demands materials with specific phys. Consequently, a wide range of natural or synthetic polymers capable of undergoing degrdn. This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years, outlining the synthesis, biodegradability and biomedical applications of biodegradable synthetic and natural polymers. Royal Society of Chemistry. Synthesis of aliph. There has been particular emphasis over the past decade on the synthesis of discrete, well-characterized complexes that are active polymn.

These recent advances in catalyst design have led to a variety of polyester microstructures. Polyester-based polymers represent excellent candidates in synthetic biodegradable and bioabsorbable materials for medical applications owing to their tailorable properties. The use of synthetic polyesters as biomaterials offers a unique control of morphol.

Within this review, the synthetic routes, degrdn. Lifetime Prediction of Biodegradable Polymers. The detn. An understanding of the phys. The recent focus on biodegradable polymers as replacements for more bio-inert materials such as the polyolefins in areas as diverse as packaging and as scaffolds for tissue engineering has highlighted the need for a review of the approaches to being able to predict the lifetime of these materials.

In many studies the focus has not been on the embrittlement and fracture of the material as it would be for a polyolefin but rather the products of degrdn. These differences are primarily due to time-scale. Different approaches to the problem have arisen in biomedicine, such as the kinetic control of drug delivery by the bio-erosion of polymers, but the similarities in mechanism provide real prospects for the prediction of the safe service lifetime of a biodegradable polymer as a structural material.

Common mechanistic themes that emerge include the diffusion-controlled process of water sorption and conditions for surface vs. Demands, properties, surgical applications, implants, composites, and drug delivery systems of biodegradable polymers are discussed. Drug Delivery Rev. Polylactic acid PLA and its copolymers have a long history of safety in humans and an extensive range of applications. PLA is biocompatible, biodegradable by hydrolysis and enzymic activity, has a large range of mech.

Formulations contg. These biomaterials can be fashioned into sutures, scaffolds, cell carriers, drug delivery systems, and a myriad of fabrications. PLA has been the focus of a multitude of preclin. Three-dimensional printing has expanded the possibilities of biomedical engineering and has enabled the fabrication of a myriad of platforms for an extensive variety of applications.

PLA has been widely used as temporary extracellular matrixes in tissue engineering. At the other end of the spectrum, PLA's application as drug-loaded nanoparticle drug carriers, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and micelles, can encapsulate otherwise toxic hydrophobic anti-tumor drugs and evade systemic toxicities. The clin.

In this review, some of the biomedical applications of PLA and its copolymers are highlighted and briefly summarized. Applications of Synthetic Polymers in Clinical Medicine. Biosurface and Biotribology. Procedia Eng. Biopolymers have been established as a promising class of materials with a wide range of applications, of which medicine stands out. Characteristics such as biocompatibility, biodegrdn. This review examines the main properties of biopolymers, as well as the potential of different biopolymers, including polylactic acid PLA , silk and chitosan, for application in implantable medical devices.

Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers as Orthopedic Devices. Biomaterials , 21 23 , — , DOI: Elsevier Science Ltd. A review with 37 refs. Polymer scientists, working closely with those in the device and medical fields, have made tremendous advances over the past 30 yr in the use of synthetic materials in the body. In this article, we will focus on properties of biodegradable polymers which make them ideally suited for orthopedic applications where a permanent implant is not desired. The materials with the greatest history of use are the poly lactides and poly glycolides , and these will be covered in specific detail.

The chem. An overview of biocompatibility and approved devices of particular interest in orthopedics are also covered. Poly lactic acid PLA is a synthetic polyester that has shown extensive utility in tissue engineering. Synthesized either by ring opening polymn. Specifically, PLA nanofibers have widened the possible uses of PLA scaffolds for regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications. The use of nanofibrous scaffolds imparts a host of desirable properties, including high surface area, biomimicry of native extracellular matrix architecture, and tuning of mech.

In this review, we present the latest advances in the use of PLA nanofibrous scaffolds for musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, and cutaneous tissue engineering and offer perspectives on their future use. Polylactides in Additive Biomanufacturing. Poh, Patrina S. New advanced manufg. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix ECM and biomaterials bioinks, powders, etc. To further advance in additive biomanufg. AM industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufg. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufg.

After which, considerations of poly lactides as a biomaterial in additive biomanufg. Challenges in wider additive biomanufg. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufg. Biodegradable polymers were widely used and have greatly promoted the development of biomedical fields because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The development of biotechnol. Novel biodegradable polymers with specific properties are in great demand. Biodegradable polymers can be classified as natural or synthetic polymers according to the source. Synthetic biodegradable polymers have found more versatile and diverse biomedical applications owing to their tailorable designs or modifications.

This review presents a comprehensive introduction to various types of synthetic biodegradable polymers with reactive groups and bioactive groups, and further describes their structure, prepn. The focus is on advances in the past decade in functionalization and responsive strategies of biodegradable polymers and their biomedical applications. The possible future developments of the materials are also discussed.

Polymer , 20 12 , — , DOI: The reactivity ratios were 2. The broad compn. Biomaterials , 16 15 , — , DOI: Bezwada, Rao S. Synthetic absorbable sutures are available as braided constructions or as monofilaments. Braided absorbable sutures are made either from poly glycolide-co-L-lactide Vicryl , or from polyglycolide Dexon. There are, however, some concerns with braided sutures that relate to tissue drag and the trauma tis may cause, as well as the possible potentiation of infection through the interstices of the braid structure.

Absorbable monofilaments, such as the monofilament sutures derived from p-dioxanone homopolymer PDS II , or a copolymer of trimethylene carbonate and glycolide Maxon , eliminate many of these concerns, but generally monofilaments do not handle as well as braids. Monocryl sutures display excellent handling properties, minimal resistance during passage through tissue and excellent tensile properties.

These sutures provide an in vivo breaking strength retention of approx. Absorption data on these sutures are presented; absorption is complete between the 91st and th days if implantation, with slight or minimal tissue reaction. During the resorbable-polymer-boom of the s and s, polycaprolactone PCL was used extensively in the biomaterials field and a no. Its popularity was soon superseded by faster resorbable polymers which had fewer perceived disadvantages assocd.

Recently, a resurgence of interest has propelled PCL back into the biomaterials-arena. The superior rheol. Coupled with relatively inexpensive prodn. This review will discuss the application of PCL as a biomaterial over the last 2 decades focusing on the advantages which have propagated its return into the spotlight with a particular focus on medical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Pego, A. The degrdn. Poly TMC specimens were extensively degraded after 3 wk and, as confirmed by histol.

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A fast linear decrease in thickness and mass without a change in mol. Initially an acute sterile inflammatory tissue reaction, caused by the implantation procedure, was obsd. It is concluded that in vivo, poly TMC is degraded via surface erosion involving cellular-mediated processes. In both cases, the tissue reaction upon implantation resembled a sterile inflammatory reaction followed by a foreign body reaction that led to the polymer encapsulation. Significant mass loss was only obsd. When extensive mass loss started, a mild-to-moderate secondary foreign body reaction, related to clearance of the polymer fragments, was triggered.

The results presented in this study demonstrate that poly TMC and both TMC copolymers are biodegradable and biocompatible materials, making these polymers attractive for the prepn. The bulk polymn. Tp , time, and concn. The ceiling temp. The polydispersity of as-polymd. II samples ranged from 2 to 3. The exptl. Oral Maxillofacial Surg. In a previous article in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the initial results of treating 10 patients with solitary, unstable, displaced zygomatic fractures using resorbable poly L-lactide PLLA plates and screws was reported Bos et al, This article describes the long-term results in these patients.

Three years postoperatively, four patients returned because they were concerned about an intermittent swelling at the site of implantation. The remaining patients were recalled after the same postoperative period. All patients were examined clinically, and six patients were operated on again for evaluation of the swelling and to investigate the nature of the tissue reaction.

Ultrastructural investigation of the degraded material showed an internalization of crystal-like PLLA material in the cytoplasm of various cells. Biomaterials , 16 4 , — , DOI: Bergsma, J. Moreover, the degrdn. PLLA bone plates, consisting of numerous stable particles of high crystallinity, are related with a s.

In order to avoid these complications, polymers were developed that are anticipated to have comparable mech.

On chem. To evaluate the long-term suitability of these as-polymd. Considering the very slow degrdn. PLLA, in vitro pre-degrdn. In this study, the biocompatibility and degrdn. Animals were killed after a postoperative period varying from 3 to 80 wk. Light and electron microscopical anal. The histol. Pre-degraded PLLA induced a mild foreign body reaction and showed a slow degrdn.

Based on the chem.

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Such pH lowering results in adverse effects, which may be responsible for biocompatibility concerns raised recently about PlA and PGA polymers. All 3 salts investigated in this study were successful in controlling the decrease in pH due to the acidic degrdn. The pH of the test media for the control group fell to a value of 3.

Implants contg. Implants with calcium hydroxyapatite and sodium bicarbonate controlled the pH values between 6. At 3 wk, marked swelling of implants contg. The mol. Thus, results from this in vitro model show that a significant decrease in pH in the vicinity of PLA-PGA implants can be avoided by incorporating basic salts. Three poly L-lactides with different mol. The three different materials were incorporated well, forming a collagenous layer. The cryst. No signs of inflammation of foreign-body reaction were obsd. The amorphous poly L-lactide of higher mol. Mvis was totally resorbed. After about 8 wk both injection-molded materials degraded progressively, subsequently accompanied by a mild to moderate foreign-body reaction.

The final biodegrdn. These properties of biodegrdn. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Biomaterials , 17 2 , 93 — , DOI: A review, with refs. This is a review of salient studies of sterilization, toxicity, biocompatibility, clin. The intrinsic nature of these biomaterials renders them suitable for applications where temporally slow releases of bioactive agents in situ may be required.

They are also desirable as fixation devices of bone, because they can virtually eliminate osteopenia assocd. The majority of currently available sterilization techniques are not suitable for these thermoplastic materials and it may be desirable to develop new sterilization stds. Biocompatibility and toxicity studies suggest that, overall, PLA-PGA biomaterials may be suitable for orthopedic applications, although certain problems, expecially pertaining to redn. The future of these materials appears bright, esp. They may be used to address the exceedingly complex problem of osteochondral repair, but also as a means to enhance fixation and repair processes in tendons and ligaments.

Biomaterials , 21 24 , — , DOI: The presence of bioabsorbable materials in orthopedics has grown significantly over the past 2 decades with applications in fracture fixation, bone replacement, cartilage repair, meniscal repair, fixation of ligaments, and drug delivery. Numerous biocompatible, biodegradable polymers are now available for both exptl. Not surprisingly, there have been a wealth of studies investigating the biomech. Promising results have been reported in the areas of fracture fixation, ligament repair, and drug delivery. In this article we review the pre-clin.

A review with 86 refs. When the polymeric material reaches the final stages of its degrdn. In most cases, the symptoms of this tissue response are subclin. Mild clin. The histopathol. For implants made of polyglycolide, the av. When slow-degrading polymers are used, the incidence is lower.

The tissue responses to polyglycolide manifest themselves 11 wk after surgery, on an av. A poorly vascularized bone section, use of a quinone dye as an additive in the polymer, and an implant geometry with large surface area each seems to be assocd. Yet in majority of the patients affected, no known individual marker of high risk is present.

Some recent lab. The results of in vitro and animal expts.

A Brief Introduction to Medical Device Biocompatibility | MDDI Online

Only large-scale long-term clin. Case reports. Journal of clinical periodontology , 13 6 , ISSN: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a regenerative surgical procedure, based on guided tissue regeneration, could predictably result in the formation of a new attachment in human teeth.

The material included 12 teeth in 10 patients with advanced periodontal disease. Following flap elevation, scaling, root planing and removal of granulation tissue, a teflon membrane was placed over the denuded root surface in such a way that the epithelium and the gingival connective tissue were prevented from reaching contact with the root during healing. The flap was replaced on the outer surface of the membrane and secured with interdental sutures. This design of wound preparation gives preference to the cells originating from the periodontal ligament PDL-cells to repopulate the wound area adjacent to the root.

Histologic analysis of the result of treatment was made in 5 of the 12 teeth scheduled for extraction. In the remaining 7 teeth, the result was evaluated using clinical measurements. The result of healing disclosed that in all teeth treated, substantial amounts of new attachment had formed. This suggests that predictable restitution of the attachment apparatus can be accomplished by using a method of treatment which is based on the principle of guided tissue regeneration. Development of the Biological Concept of Guided Tissue.

Periodontology A randomized multi-center study. Journal of periodontology , 66 7 , ISSN: In this multi-center study 38 patients with contralateral molar Class II furcation defects were treated with GTR therapy using a bioresorbable matrix barrier test and a nonresorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ePTFE barrier control. Following flap elevation, scaling, root planing, and removal of granulation tissue, each device was adjusted to cover the furcation defect.

The flaps were repositioned and sutured to complete coverage of the barriers. A second surgical procedure was performed at control sites after 4 to 6 weeks to remove the nonresorbable barrier. Before treatment and 12 months postsurgery all patients were examined and probing depths, clinical attachment levels, and position of the gingival margin were recorded.

The primary response variable was the change in clinical attachment level in a horizontal direction CAL-H change. Statistically significant gain of clinical attachment level in both horizontal and vertical direction was found at the test sites. At control sites gain of attachment in horizontal direction was statistically significant. The gain of CAL-H was 2. At test sites, the gingival margin was maintained close to the pre-surgical level 0.

Concept and experimental results. Herz , 24 8 , ISSN: The Angio-Seal hemostatic puncture closure device is the culmination of development efforts dating from Development was driven to solve problems of delivering a multi-piece bioabsorbable puncture closure assembly through an introducer, the precise placement of the device in the vessel, the mastery of molding tiny absorbable polymer components, the manufacture of collagen hemostatic sponges having strong tear strength, and the testing of very large samples to establish safety and efficacy.

Improvements included in the new 6F device to improve deployment reliability are also discussed. Kofron, Michelle D. Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are being investigated as scaffolding materials for use in regenerative medicine. Here, a 6 mo in vitro degrdn. Using sintered microsphere matrix technol. Long-term quant. Following implantation in a crit. Thus, the use of amorphous over semi-cryst. PLAGA materials is advocated for applications in regenerative medicine.

Biodegradable Poly Lactic Acid Polymers. The degradations also showed that in the biol. This study detd. A total of rats were implanted with 14C- and 3H-labeled polymers in bone and soft tissue. At intervals of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 months, groups of 5 animals with the implants in bone and 5 with the implants in the abdominal wall were sacrificed. The implant area as well as tissue from the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and some muscle tissue was analyzed for radioactivity along with the urine and feces collected throughout the expt. Half-lives of the different polymers and copolymers were calcd.

Fast-cured PGA had a half-life in tissue of 0. No difference in rate degradation was seen in soft tissue or bone. No significant radioactivity was detected in urine, feces, or tissue samples. Thus, control of degradation rate of the implant could best be attained by varying the compn. This could provide a half-life range of the implant of from 2 weeks to 6 months. Visscher, G. The biodegrdn. A minimal localized acute myositis was seen initially at the injection sites. By day 4, a few small foreign body giant cells were present participating in the minimal foreign body response.

Later the inflammatory cells decreased and the individual microcapsules were walled off by immature fibrous connective tissue and large syncytial foreign body giant cells. By day 35, definitive changes in some microcapsules, consisting of a granular and slightly eroded appearance of the internal matrix, were seen by SEM. By day 42, the outer rims of the microcapsules were extensively eroded. At day 56, the inflammatory and connective tissue reactions were almost completely resolved and biodegrdn. The morphol. Phagocytosis did not seem to be an important factor in the biodegrdn.

Studies on Primary Hyperoxaluria II. Urinary oxalate, glycolate, and glyoxylate measurement by isotope dilution methods. Hockaday, T. New Engl. Isotope diln. The latter 2 compds. Oxalate excretion averaged Urinary glycolate averaged 42 and mg. Literature Updates. For Members. For Librarians. RSS Feeds.

Chemistry World. Education in Chemistry. Open Access. Historical Collection. You do not have JavaScript enabled. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site or access our non-JavaScript page. Issue 15, Previous Article Next Article. From the journal: Chemical Society Reviews. Biocompatible ionic liquids: fundamental behaviours and applications. Joana M. Reis abc. You have access to this article. Please wait while we load your content Something went wrong. Try again? While accumulating reports describe the influence of nanotube diameter on cell behavior, little is known about the effects of nanotube lateral spacing on cells involved in bone regeneration.

Both nanostructured surfaces supported cell viability and proliferation in approximately equal extent. However, obvious differences in the cell spreading areas, morphologies, the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the pattern of the focal adhesions were noticed. Furthermore, investigation of the pre-osteoblast differentiation potential indicated a higher capacity of larger spacing nanostructure to enhance the expression of the alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin osteoblast specific markers inducing osteogenic differentiation.

These findings provide the proof that lateral spacing of the TiO 2 nanotube coated titanium Ti surfaces has to be considered in designing bone implants with improved biological performance. The white arrowheads show the location of cellular extensions; filopodia are indicated with white arrows. Open Access Feature Paper Article. Abstract Due to the reduced ability of most harmed tissues to self-regenerate, new strategies are being developed in order to promote self-repair assisted or not by biomaterials, among these tissue engineering TE.

Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells hASCs currently represent a promising tool for [ Due to the reduced ability of most harmed tissues to self-regenerate, new strategies are being developed in order to promote self-repair assisted or not by biomaterials, among these tissue engineering TE. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells hASCs currently represent a promising tool for tissue reconstruction, due to their low immunogenicity, high differentiation potential to multiple cell types and easy harvesting.

Gelatin is a natural biocompatible polymer used for regenerative applications, while nanodiamond particles NDs are used as reinforcing nanomaterial that might modulate cell behavior, namely cell adhesion, viability, and proliferation. The development of electrospun microfibers loaded with NDs is expected to allow nanomechanical sensing due to local modifications of both nanostructure and stiffness.

Two aqueous suspensions with 0. Advanced morpho- and micro-structural characterization revealed homogeneous microfibers. Nanoindentation tests confirmed the reinforcing effect of NDs. Abstract Bone is based on an elaborate system of mineralization and vascularization. In hard tissue engineering, diverse biomaterials compatible with osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been developed. In the present study, to examine the processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, osteoblast-like MG cells were co-cultured with [ Bone is based on an elaborate system of mineralization and vascularization. In the present study, to examine the processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, osteoblast-like MG cells were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVECs on a microfiber scaffold.

Cell viability under both monoculture and co-culture conditions was constantly sustained. During the culture periods, the cells were spread along the fibers and extended pseudopodium-like structures on the microfibers three-dimensionally. Compared to the monoculture results, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the co-culture increased 3—6 fold, whereas the vascular endothelial cell growth factor secretion significantly decreased.

These results suggest that the activation of HUVECs by co-culture with MG could enhance osteoblastic differentiation in the microfiber scaffold, which mimics the microenvironment of the extracellular matrix. This approach can be effective for the construction of tissue-engineered bone with vascular networks. Cells were seeded at 5. Initial cell attachment was assessed using an MTT assay described in Materials and Methods and calculated by the ratio between the absorbance of the cells that adhered to the scaffold and the absorbance of the cells cultured without the scaffold. There were no significant differences among them.

Arrowheads show the spindle-shaped cells and asterisks indicate shrinkage-rounded cells. Arrowheads show pseudopodium-like structures. Abstract We reported on three-dimensional 3D superparamagnetic scaffolds that enhanced the mineralization of magnetic nanoparticle-free osteoblast cells. MNPs [ We reported on three-dimensional 3D superparamagnetic scaffolds that enhanced the mineralization of magnetic nanoparticle-free osteoblast cells.

MNPs with a diameter of 4. The MNPs in the scaffolds retained their superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPs reduced the shrinkage of the structures from Osteoblast cells seeded on scaffolds exposed to static magnetic field of 1. Scaffolds deformation and extracellular matrix mineralization under static magnetic field SMF exposure increased with increasing MNPs concentration. Upper panel: scaffolds overview samples tilted at 45 grd. Left panels: cells growing on the scaffolds. Upper panel , unstimulated scaffolds. Abstract With growing advances in three-dimensional 3D printing technology, the availability and diversity of printing materials has rapidly increased over the last years.

With growing advances in three-dimensional 3D printing technology, the availability and diversity of printing materials has rapidly increased over the last years. However, there still remains a lack of information regarding the impact of printing materials and post-processing techniques on cell behavior. This study introduces real-time live-cell imaging technology as a fast, user-friendly, and high-throughput screening strategy to verify the in vitro biocompatibility of 3D printed materials. Polyacrylate-based photopolymer material was printed using high-resolution 3D printing techniques, post-processed using three different procedures, and then analyzed with respect to its effects on cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells MSCs.

When using ethanol for the post-processing procedure and disinfection, no significant effects on MSCs could be detected. For the analyses a novel image-based live-cell analysis system was compared against a biochemical-based standard plate reader assay and traditional flow cytometry.

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This comparison illustrates the superiority of using image-based detection of in vitro biocompatibility with respect to analysis time, usability, and scientific outcome. The in vitro biocompatibility of 3D printed material was evaluated using three different approaches. The percentage of living, apoptotic and necrotic cells are analyzed per cultivation. Green fluorescence is related to apoptotic cells; red fluorescence shows necrotic cells. Cell growth, apoptosis and necrosis of MSCs are analyzed per cultivation. Abstract Inhibition of residual malignant tumors in patients with colon cancer after operation is one of the difficulties in rehabilitation treatment.

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  • At present, using biocompatible materials to remove the copper ion which is the growth dependence of malignant tumors in the lesion site is [ Inhibition of residual malignant tumors in patients with colon cancer after operation is one of the difficulties in rehabilitation treatment. At present, using biocompatible materials to remove the copper ion which is the growth dependence of malignant tumors in the lesion site is considered to be the frontier means to solve this problem. SA: sodium alginate; PEI: polyethyleneimine. The green dots stained by AO indicate living cells, and the red dots stained by PI indicate dead or dying cells.

    Duda and Britt Wildemann. Abstract Infections of bone are severe complications, and an optimization of grafting material with antimicrobial drugs might be useful for prevention and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gentamicin-loaded bone graft on the healing of bone defects in a sheep model. Infections of bone are severe complications, and an optimization of grafting material with antimicrobial drugs might be useful for prevention and treatment.

    The amount of graft decreased over time due to active resorption by osteoclasts, while osteoblasts formed new bone. No difference between the groups was seen after three weeks. After nine weeks, significantly less mineralized tissue was formed in the gentamicin-loaded graft group.

    Signs of inflammatory reactions were seen in all three groups. Even though the applied gentamicin concentration was based on the concentration of gentamicin mixed with cement, the healing process was impaired. When using local gentamicin, a dose-dependent, compromising effect on bone healing should be considered.

    Healing progressed from week three to week nine in all groups, with less healing in the gentamicin-treated defects. Diaphyseally, significantly less bone was formed in the DBM group compared to control. F Shift to the coverage with mostly osteoblasts Ob compared to osteoclasts Oc at the late time point.

    Size of scale bars is given in the figures. However, in times of increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of alternative antimicrobial functionalization strategies is of major [ However, in times of increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of alternative antimicrobial functionalization strategies is of major interest. Antibacterial efficiency was determined by agar diffusion and proliferation test on Staphylocuccus aureus. Cytocompatibility was analyzed by direct cultivation of MC3T3-E1 cells on top of the functionalized surfaces for 2 and 4 d.

    Samples were pre-incubated aged in PBS for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Non-aged but antibacterial functionalized samples are shown in red. Viable cells appear in green whereas nuclei of non-viable cells are shown in red. Abstract Calcium carbonate from marble and seashells is an eco-friendly, sustainable, and largely available bioresource for producing natural bone-like calcium phosphates CaPs.

    Based on three main objectives, this research targeted the: i adaptation of an indirect synthesis route by modulating the amount of phosphorus [ Calcium carbonate from marble and seashells is an eco-friendly, sustainable, and largely available bioresource for producing natural bone-like calcium phosphates CaPs. Based on three main objectives, this research targeted the: i adaptation of an indirect synthesis route by modulating the amount of phosphorus used in the chemical reaction, ii comprehensive structural, morphological, and surface characterization, and iii biocompatibility assessment of the synthesized powdered samples.

    The morphological characterization was performed on digitally processed scanning electron microscopy SEM images. The complementary 3D image augmentation of SEM results also allowed the quantification of roughness parameters.

    Biocompatible ionic liquids: fundamental behaviours and applications

    The results revealed that both morphology and roughness were modulated through the induced variation of the synthesis parameters. Structural investigation of the samples was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro assessment of the powdered samples demonstrated their capacity to support MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast viability and proliferation at comparable levels to the negative cytotoxicity control and the reference material commercial hydroxyapatite.

    Therefore, these samples hold great promise for biomedical applications. For all roughness profiles, the scale bar is provided on the right side up and down of the figure. Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition of crushed, extracted human teeth and the quantity of biomaterial that can be obtained from this process. A total of human teeth, extracted due to trauma, decay, or periodontal disease, were [ The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition of crushed, extracted human teeth and the quantity of biomaterial that can be obtained from this process.

    A total of human teeth, extracted due to trauma, decay, or periodontal disease, were analyzed.